Nephritic syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome
Renal failure

  • Describe the fluid composition of the body, the body water compartments and the normal movement of fluids and electrolytes between compartments
  • Describe the anatomy and physiology of the renal system
  • Describe non-renal causes of edema
  • List the cardinal features of glomerulonephritis and the most common causes in the pediatric population
  • Describe the pathophysiology of glomerular disease
  • Interpret results of a urinalysis and other tests of kidney function
  • Distinguish between pre-renal, renal and post-renal causes of acute kidney injury
  • Distinguish between transient, benign, and pathologic proteinuria

Overview & Foundational Knowledge

Hisano S et al. Edema in childhood. Kidney Int 1997; 59: S100-104.

An old review but covers the basics well: localised and general edema, causes and management.

Gordillo R & Spitzer A. The nephrotic syndrome. Pediatrics in Review 2009; 30: 94-105.

Review of the mechanism of proteinuria, treatment and outcomes.

Andreoli S. Acute kidney injury in children. Pediatric Nephrology 2009; 24(2): 253-263.

Causes of childhood acute and kidney failure, treatment and complications.

Clinical Resources

Lombel et al. Treatment of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome: new guidelines from KDIGO. Pediatric Nephrology 2013; 28: 415-26.

Latest guidelines for the treatment of idiopathic childhood nephrotic syndrome.

Clinical Presentations