- Describe the fluid composition of the body, the body water compartments and the normal movement of fluids and electrolytes between compartments
- Describe the anatomy and physiology of the renal system
- Describe non-renal causes of edema
- List the cardinal features of glomerulonephritis and the most common causes in the pediatric population
- Describe the pathophysiology of glomerular disease
- Interpret results of a urinalysis and other tests of kidney function
- Distinguish between pre-renal, renal and post-renal causes of acute kidney injury
- Distinguish between transient, benign, and pathologic proteinuria
Overview & Foundational Knowledge
|Hisano S et al. Edema in childhood. Kidney Int 1997; 59: S100-104.
An old review but covers the basics well: localised and general edema, causes and management.
|Gordillo R & Spitzer A. The nephrotic syndrome. Pediatrics in Review 2009; 30: 94-105.
Review of the mechanism of proteinuria, treatment and outcomes.
|Cooke D & Plotnick L. Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics in Review 2008; 29: 431-436.
Presentation, treatment and possible complications.
|Andreoli S. Acute kidney injury in children. Pediatric Nephrology 2009; 24(2): 253-263.
Causes of childhood acute and kidney failure, treatment and complications.
|Vandenaplas Y et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of cow’s milk protein allergy in infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2007; 92: 902-908.
Includes algorithms for formula and breast fed infants.
|Lombel et al. Treatment of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome: new guidelines from KDIGO. Pediatric Nephrology 2013; 28: 415-26.
Latest guidelines for the treatment of childhood nephrotic syndrome.