Genitourinary Complaints(hematuria, dysuria, polyuria, frequency, pain)
- Describe the anatomy and physiology of the genitourinary system
- Identify infectious and non-infectious causes of urinary complaints
- Distinguish between glomerular versus non-glomerular hematuria
- Apply basic principles of pharmacology and indications for drugs used in the management of urinary tract infections
- Describe the pathophysiology of male genital complaints, including phimosis, balanitis and testicular torsion
- Describe the pathophysiology of infectious and non-infectious vulvovaginitis
- Differentiate between diurnal and nocturnal enuresis, and when enuresis requires treatment
Overview & Foundational Knowledge
|Williams GJ, Hodson EH, Isaacs D & Craig JC. Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection in children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 2012; 48: 296-301.
This review summarizes the most relevant recent primary studies, systematic reviews and guidelines
|Meyers K. Evaluation of hematuria in children. Urology Clinics of North America 2004; 31: 559-573.
Evaluation from the basics to differential diagnosis and a paragraph on each individual disease.
|Saulsbury FT. Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Current Opinion in Rheumatology 2010; 22: 598-602.
A short update on recent advances in the genetic susceptibility, pathogenesis and treatment of Henoch–Schonlein purpura.
|Kiddoo DA. Nocturnal enuresis. CMAJ 2012; 184(8): 908-910.
Brief “primer” on nocturnal enuresis.
|Hellerstein S & Linebarger J. Voiding Dysfunction in Pediatric Patients. Clinical Pediatrics 2003; 42: 43-9.
Clinical criteria for the various voiding disorders with management
|Wolfsdorf et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes 2009; 10 (Suppl 12): 118-133.
International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2009 Compendium
|Management of primary nocturnal enuresis
Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (2005, 2013)
|Urinary Tract Infection: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of the Initial UTI in Febrile Infants and Children 2 to 24 Months. Pediatrics 2011; 128: 595-610.
There are many UTI guidelines – this is a recent one for younger children.
|Estrada CR Jr, Passerotti CC, Graham DA, et al. Nomograms for predicting annual resolution rate of primary vesicoureteral reflux: results from 2462 children. J Urol 2009; 182: 1535.
Useful to estimate probability of spontaneous resolution of childhood vesicoureteric reflux.
|Ahn SY & Ingulli E. Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis: An update. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 2008; 20: 157-162.
This review summarizes the recent advances in the pathogenesis, host susceptibility factors, diverse clinical presentations, and treatment of the condition.