Congenital heart disease
- Describe the anatomy of the cardiovascular system, explain the basic physiology of cardiac function, and be able to relate the anatomy and physiology to the cardiac physical exam finding
- Describe the basic embryology of the heart and major vessels and how abnormalities in embryological development lead to the development of congenital heart defects
- Describe the structural and dynamic changes that occur following birth in the cardiovascular system, including closure of the ductus arteriosus
- Describe the classification system of murmurs
Overview & Foundational Knowledge
|Frank JE & Jacobe KM. Evaluation and Management of Heart Murmurs in Children. American Family Physician 2011; 84: 793-800.
Review article on evaluation and management of murmurs.
|Medical University of South Carolina: Congenital Heart Disease Animation
Animated video of ASD, VSD, PFO, PDA and CoA.
|Lucille Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford: Overview of Congenital heart Disease
Includes diagrams and written descriptions of all congenital heart disease; provides an approach to the diagnosis of congenital heart disease.
|About Kids Health, SickKids Hospital: Resource Centres/Congenital Heart Conditions|
|Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center: Cardiac Anomalies / Congenital Heart Defects
Describes congenital heart disease, both cyanotic and acyanotic; navigate site by selecting specific CHD. Demonstrates differences between normal and abnormal hearts. Includes nice images and videos.
|University of Washington: Demonstration of Heart Sounds & Murmurs
This site includes audio demonstrations of heart sounds and murmurs, as well as includes links to the pathophysiology.
Virtual Patients or Cases
|University of Michigan Heart Sound and Murmur Library
Audio of murmurs with cardiograms for visual representation.
|Children’s Hospital Cleveland Clinic: Pediatric Radiology Image Gallery
Image gallery of pediatric radiology; can be navigated by body system or by topic. Images labeled by presentation. On reviewing image, can select to have findings highlighted as well as diagnosis provided.