Abnormal newborn screen
Hypotonia / floppy newborn
Large for gestational age
Neonatal abstinence syndrome
Newborn physical exam (normal, abnormal)
Small for gestational age
Vitamin K deficiency
- Describe basic embryology and fetal development and how alternations may lead to congenital abnormalities
- List factors affecting fetal growth
- Describe normal and abnormal patterns of fetal growth
- Define pre-term, term, and post-term gestation
- Identify prenatal risk factors for adverse outcomes in a newborn
- Describe the processes of transition and adaptation from intrauterine to extrauterine life
- Define asphyxia and describe its biochemical and physiological effects on the newborn at birth
- Describe glucose homeostasis in the newborn
- Describe the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that predispose newborns to infection
Overview & Foundational Knowledge
|Phillpi WJB. Care of the well newborn. Pediatrics in Review 2012; 33: 4-18.
Overview article; very comprehensive article covering many aspects of neonatal evaluation and care (antenatal care, early postpartum transitioning, anticipatory guidance, discharge readiness).
|Ramachandrappa A & Jain L. Health Issues of the Late Preterm Infant. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2009; 56(3): 565-577.
Quite detailed but a good, comprehensive overview of late preterm health issues and their management.
|Hermansen, C. and Lorah, K. Respiratory Distress in the Newborn. American Family Physician 2007; 76(7). Available at:
Covers diagnosis and management of common causes of respiratory distress in the newborn (transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration) with good visuals (X-rays). Gives a good differential of less common causes.
|Polin, RA. Management of Neonates with Suspected or Proven early-onset Bacterial Sepsis. Pediatrics 2012; 129(5): 1006-15. Epub 2012 April 30.
A good overview. Discusses infants at risk for early-onset sepsis, including evaluation, treatment, prevention, as well as clinical challenges.
|Peredo, D. The floppy infant: Evaluation of Hypotonia. Pediatrics in Review 2009; 30: e66.
Hypotonia overview. Good visuals, nice tables.
|Uhing MR. Management of birth injuries. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2004; 51(4): 1169-89 xii.
Overview of birth trauma, hypothermia in the newborn and the depressed newborn.
|McGowan JE. Neonatal Hypoglycemia. Pediatrics in Review 1999; 20: e6-14.
Hypoglycemia overview. Includes foundational knowledge including glucose homeostasis. Covers transient and prolonged hypoglycemia. More detailed than required.
|University of Texas: Medical Genetics and Dysmorphology Website
Covers a range of topics related to medical genetics and dysmorphology and includes quiz questions.
|Bull MJ and the Committee on Genetics; AAP Clinical Report-Health Supervision for Children with Down Syndrome.
Very detailed but the student can focus on syndrome description and on table 1- major comorbidities
|Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (2002, 2013) For new diagnostic criteria – table 1
|Del Pizzo J. Focus on Diagnosis: Congenital Infections (TORCH); Pediatrics in Review 2011; 32(12) : 537-542.
A good, simple overview of congenital infections. Covers route of infection, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment, however does not discuss when to consider congenital infections in a neonate.
|Oelberg DG. Consultation with the Specialist: Prenatal Growth: The sum of maternal, placental and fetal contributions. Pediatrics in Review 2006; 27: 224-229.
Covers issues relating to prenatal growth including IUGR, SGA and LGA infants.
|Hanley WB. Newborn screening in Canada- Are we out of step? Paediatrics and Child Health 2005; 10(4): 203-207.
Addresses issues with newborn screening. Newborn screening in Canada is a provincial mandate. Table 2 provides a general overview but may not be up to date. Please check your provincial program.
|Goldberg MJ. Early Detection of Developmental Hip Dysplasia: Synopsis of the AAP Clinical Practice Guideline. Pediatrics in Review 2001; 22(4): 131-134.
Brief guidelines regarding management of abnormal hip examination. No pictures.
|Mooney JF & Emans JB. Developmental Dislocation of the Hip: A Clinical Overview. Pediatrics in Review 1995; 16: 299.
Images only. For more up-to-date management, please see other article.
|Anhalt H, Neely EK & Hintz RL. Ambiguous genitalia. Pediatrics in Review 1996; 17(6): 213-220.
Foundational knowledge, good tables, fairly detailed.
|Docimo SG, Silver RI & Cromie W; The Undescended Testicle: Diagnosis and Management. American Family Physician 2000; 62(9): 2037-2044. Available at:
Nice overview. Covers management as well as consequences of untreated undescended testes.
|Red Reflex Examination in Neonates, Infants, and Children. Pediatrics 2008; 122 (6): 1401-1404.
Abnormal exam: absent red reflex. Statement from AAP Section on Ophthalmology and other associations.
|Routine administration of vitamin K to newborns.
Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (1997, 2013)
|Screening guidelines for newborns at risk for low blood glucose
Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (2004, 2013)
|Chudley AE et al. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Canadian guidelines for diagnosis. CMAJ 2005; 172 (5 suppl)
Canadian guidelines for diagnosis of FASD. Very comprehensive. Good tables for diagnostic criteria; good pictures. More detail than required.
|Abnormal Red Reflex (Chapter 19)
Good images. Original textbook source unknown.