Abnormal newborn screen
Birth Trauma
Congenital infections
Depressed newborn
Hypotonia / floppy newborn
Large for gestational age
Neonatal abstinence syndrome
Newborn physical exam (normal, abnormal)
Respiratory distress
Small for gestational age
Trisomy 21
Vitamin K deficiency

  • Describe basic embryology and fetal development and how alternations may lead to congenital abnormalities
  • List factors affecting fetal growth
  • Describe normal and abnormal patterns of fetal growth
  • Define pre-term, term, and post-term gestation
  • Identify prenatal risk factors for adverse outcomes in a newborn
  • Describe the processes of transition and adaptation from intrauterine to extrauterine life
  • Define asphyxia and describe its biochemical and physiological effects on the newborn at birth
  • Describe glucose homeostasis in the newborn
  • Describe the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that predispose newborns to infection

Overview & Foundational Knowledge

Phillpi WJB.  Care of the well newborn. Pediatrics in Review 2012; 33: 4-18.

Overview article; very comprehensive article covering many aspects of neonatal evaluation and care (antenatal care, early postpartum transitioning, anticipatory guidance, discharge readiness).

Ramachandrappa A & Jain L. Health Issues of the Late Preterm Infant. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2009; 56(3): 565-577.

Quite detailed but a good, comprehensive overview of late preterm health issues and their management.

Hermansen, C. and Lorah, K. Respiratory Distress in the Newborn. American Family Physician 2007; 76(7). Available at:

Covers diagnosis and management of common causes of respiratory distress in the newborn (transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration) with good visuals (X-rays). Gives a good differential of less common causes.

Polin, RA. Management of Neonates with Suspected or Proven early-onset Bacterial Sepsis. Pediatrics 2012; 129(5): 1006-15. Epub 2012 April 30. 

A good overview. Discusses infants at risk for early-onset sepsis, including evaluation, treatment, prevention, as well as clinical challenges.

Peredo, D. The floppy infant: Evaluation of Hypotonia. Pediatrics in Review 2009; 30: e66.

Hypotonia overview. Good visuals, nice tables.

Uhing MR. Management of birth injuries. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2004; 51(4): 1169-89 xii.

Overview of birth trauma, hypothermia in the newborn and the depressed newborn.

McGowan JE. Neonatal Hypoglycemia. Pediatrics in Review 1999; 20: e6-14.

Hypoglycemia overview. Includes foundational knowledge including glucose homeostasis. Covers transient and prolonged hypoglycemia. More detailed than required.

University of Texas: Medical Genetics and Dysmorphology Website

Covers a range of topics related to medical genetics and dysmorphology and includes quiz questions.

Bull MJ and the Committee on Genetics; AAP Clinical Report-Health Supervision for Children with Down Syndrome.

Very detailed but the student can focus on syndrome description and on table 1- major comorbidities

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (2002, 2013) For new diagnostic criteria – table 1

Del Pizzo J. Focus on Diagnosis: Congenital Infections (TORCH); Pediatrics in Review 2011; 32(12) : 537-542.

A good, simple overview of congenital infections. Covers route of infection, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment, however does not discuss when to consider congenital infections in a neonate.

Oelberg DG. Consultation with the Specialist: Prenatal Growth: The sum of maternal, placental and fetal contributions. Pediatrics in Review 2006; 27: 224-229.

Covers issues relating to prenatal growth including IUGR, SGA and LGA infants.

Hanley WB. Newborn screening in Canada- Are we out of step? Paediatrics and Child Health 2005; 10(4): 203-207.

Addresses issues with newborn screening. Newborn screening in Canada is a provincial mandate. Table 2 provides a general overview but may not be up to date. Please check your provincial program.

Goldberg MJ. Early Detection of Developmental Hip Dysplasia: Synopsis of the AAP Clinical Practice Guideline. Pediatrics in Review 2001; 22(4): 131-134.

Brief guidelines regarding management of abnormal hip examination. No pictures.

Mooney JF & Emans JB. Developmental Dislocation of the Hip: A Clinical Overview. Pediatrics in Review 1995; 16: 299.

Images only. For more up-to-date management, please see other article.

Anhalt H, Neely EK & Hintz RL. Ambiguous genitalia. Pediatrics in Review 1996; 17(6): 213-220.

Foundational knowledge, good tables, fairly detailed. 

Docimo SG, Silver RI & Cromie W; The Undescended Testicle: Diagnosis and Management. American Family Physician 2000; 62(9): 2037-2044. Available at:

Nice overview. Covers management as well as consequences of untreated undescended testes.

Red Reflex Examination in Neonates, Infants, and Children. Pediatrics 2008; 122 (6): 1401-1404.

Abnormal exam: absent red reflex. Statement from AAP Section on Ophthalmology and other associations.

Routine administration of vitamin K to newborns.

Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (1997, 2013)

Clinical Resources

Screening guidelines for newborns at risk for low blood glucose

Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (2004, 2013)

Chudley AE et al. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Canadian guidelines for diagnosis. CMAJ 2005; 172 (5 suppl)

Canadian guidelines for diagnosis of FASD. Very comprehensive. Good tables for diagnostic criteria; good pictures. More detail than required.

Abnormal Red Reflex (Chapter 19)

Good images. Original textbook source unknown.

Clinical Presentations