Abdominal Pain & Abdominal Mass

Appendicitis
Constipation
Functional abdominal pain
Neuroblastoma
Ovarian torsion
Pregnancy
Wilm’s tumor

  • Describe the anatomy, physiology and embryology of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and reproductive systems
  • Relate locations and patters of abdominal pain to basic anatomy and physiology
  • Describe normal stooling patters and the influence of diet
  • Describe the differences between upper and lower intestinal obstruction and their clinical manifestations
  • Identify investigations that may be used in the evaluation of abdominal pain

Overview & Foundational Knowledge

Ross A & LeLeiko NS. Acute Abdominal Pain. Pediatrics in Review 2010; 31: 135-144.

Overview on acute abdominal pain. Focus on history, physical and differential diagnosis.

Alexander K.C. Leung AKC & Sigalet D. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children. Am Fam Physician 2003; 67(11): 2321-2327.

Review article on acute abdominal pain. Focus on the surgical prospective with age specific differential diagnoses.

First Principles of Gastroenterology. The basis of disease and an approach to management. Fifth edition. Chapter 14. Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Disease in the child. Page 681-85.

https://www.cag-acg.org/images/publications/EN_GAST_14B.pdf

Textbook chapter that includes specific section on chronic abdominal pain in children. Brief overview on chronic abdominal pain

Collins BS & Thomas DW. Chronic Abdominal Pain. Pediatrics in Review 2007; 28: 323–331.

Review article on chronic abdominal pain focusing on functional causes of abdominal pain.

Zeiter DK & Hyams JS. Recurrent abdominal pain in children. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2002; 49 (1): 53-71.

Case based overview article discussing differential diagnosis of chronic functional abdominal pain.

Gray SH. Menstrual Disorders. Pediatrics in Review Vol. 34 No. 1 January 1, 2013, pp. 6–18.

A review article on menstruation including primary and secondary amenorrhea as well as dysmenorrhea.

Trent M. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Pediatrics in Review Vol. 34 No. 4 April 1, 2013, pp. 163–172.

A review article on pelvic inflammatory disease with CDC guidelines for treatment.

Kaskowitz A & Quint E. A Practical Overview of Managing Adolescent Gynecologic Conditions in the Pediatric Office. Pediatrics in Review Vol. 35 No. 9 September 1, 2014, pp. 371–381.

A review article on many different gynecological conditions including vulvovaginal disorders, STI, PID, pelvic pain and pelvic masses.

Potisek NJ & Antoon JW. Abdominal Masses. Pediatrics in Review. February 2017. 38 (2); 101-103.

Brief review article discussing abdominal masses in children using an anatomical location approach

Clinical Resources

Managing functional constipation in children.

http://www.cps.ca/documents/position/functional-constipation

http://www.cps.ca/fr/documents/position/constipation-fonctionnelle

Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (2011) on constipation

Children’s Digestive Health Information for Kids and Parents

http://www.gikids.org/

This website is excellent for patient information

Virtual Patients or Cases

Acute and Chronic Abdominal Pain.

https://www.pedscases.com/

https://itunes.apple.com/ca/podcast/pedscases.com-pediatrics-for/id330446233

Audio podcast of an approach to acute abdominal pain (13:28 minutes). Audio podcast of an approach to chronic abdominal pain  (13:42 minutes).

Abdominal Pain

https://www.pedscases.com/

Case based quiz on abdominal pain in a child.

Clinical Presentations