Fever in different age groups (<1mo, 1-3 mo, >3 mo)
Kawasaki disease
Occult bacteremia /sepsis
Urinary tract infection

  • Describe the pathophysiology of thermoregulation and define fever
  • List and classify common pathogens that cause fever
  • List non-infectious causes of fever
  • Describe the modes of transmission of infectious agents and means of prevention
  • Demonstrate competence in the application of universal precautions
  • List and classify the common pathogens causing urinary tract infections in children
  • Describe the basic principles of pharmacology used in the management of fever and infectious and non-infectious febrile conditions

Overview & Foundational Knowledge

Avner, JR. Acute fever. Pediatrics in Review 2009; 30(1): 5-13.

Overview on pathophysiology and management of acute fever.

Mann, K & Jackson, MA. Meningitis. Pediatrics in Review 2008; 29(12): 417-430.

Overview on bacterial, viral, TB and fungal meningitis, management, complications and long term sequelae.

Ishimine, P. Fever without source in children 1 to 36 months of age. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2006; 53: 167-194.

A lengthy but quite complete overview. Includes foundational knowledge.

Fever without a focus in less than 3 months. Pedscases podcast.

Interview with a Pediatric ID specialist from University of Alberta. Good summary. Free download on iTunes.

Son MB & Newberger J. Kawasaki Disease. Pediatrics in Review 2013; 34(4): 151-162.

Overview article on Kawasaki disease, manifestations, differential diagnosis, treatment, cardiac complications- good pictures and tables.

Clinical Resources

Temperature measurement in paediatrics



Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement on measuring temperature and definitions of fever.

Urinary tract infection: Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of the initial UTI in febrile infants and children 2 to 24 months. Pediatrics, 2011; 128(3): 595-610.

Clinical practice guideline from the Subcommittee on UTI, steering committee on quality improvement and management.

Evaluation of Fever in Infants and Young Children. Hamilton JL, John SP. American Family Physician. 2013; 87(4): 254-260.


Good article with flow diagrams to demonstrate evaluation of febrile infants. American context, but very similar to Canadian approach.

Virtual Patients or Cases

Prolonged fever.

Access through https://www.pedscases.com

Clinical Presentations