Eye Issues

Absent red reflex
Normal vision development
Periorbital / orbital cellulitis
Visual changes

  • Describe the anatomy and physiology of the eye and related structures
  • Describe normal visual development
  • Describe the pathophysiology and risk factors of common diseases affecting the eye and related structures
  • Demonstrate assessment of extraocular movements and identify the corresponding cranial nerves
  • List and classify the pathogens causing infections of the eye and related structures
  • Describe the basic principles of pharmacology used in the management of common eye infections

Overview & Foundational Knowledge

Hauser, A. and Fogarasi, S. Periorbital and orbital cellulitis. Pediatrics in Review 2010; 31(6): 242-249.

Very good overview of periorbital and orbital cellulitis. Excellent pictures. There is a correction to the post-article questions (question 14, correct answer is C). Please note: for MRSA, antibiotics choices should be adapted as antibiotic resistance patterns vary by region.

Richards A and Guzman-Cotrrill JA. Conjunctivitis. Pediatrics in Review 2010; 31(5): 196-208.

Overview of conjunctivitis. Many good pictures.

Red Reflex Examination in Neonates, Infants, and Children. Pediatrics 2008; 122 (6): 1401-1404

Abnormal exam: absent red reflex. Statement from AAP Section on Ophthalmology and other associations.

Clinical Resources

Abnormal Red Reflex (Chapter 19)


Good images. Original textbook source unknown.

Clinical Presentations