Respiratory distress / Cough

Congestive heart failure
Cystic fibrosis
Foreign body
Status asthmaticus

  • Describe the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system and relate them to the respiratory physical exam
  • Describe the differences between upper and lower airway conditions and their clinical manifestations
  • Describe the physiology of restrictive and obstructive lung disease
  • Describe the pathophysiology of infectious and non-infectious respiratory conditions
  • Identify symptoms and signs of respiratory disease and recognize adventitious sounds
  • Name and classify pathogens that cause respiratory disease in children
  • Describe basic principles of pharmacology used in the management of common respiratory conditions

Overview & Foundational Knowledge

Cohen L. Stridor and upper airway obstruction in children. Pediatrics in Review 2000; 21(4): 4-5

Overview of upper airway of obstruction.

Snyder J & Fisher D. Pertussis in childhood. Pediatrics in Review 2012; 33 (9): 412-421.

Overview of pertussis.

Montgomery GS & Howenstine M. Cystic Fibrosis. Pediatrics in Review 2009; 30(8): 302-310.

Overview of Cystic Fibrosis.

Madriago E & Silberbach M. Heart failure in infants and children. Pediatrics in Review 2010; 31(1): 4-12.

Overview of congestive heart failure in children.

Clinical Resources

Uncomplicated pneumonia in healthy Canadian children and youth: Practice points for management 2015. Nicole Le Saux, et al. Paediatr Child Health 2015;20(8):441-45

Good guidelines regarding management of pneumonia in a Canadian context.

Diagnosis and management of asthma in preschoolers: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Paediatric Society position paper. Ducharme et al. Can Respir J 2015;22(3):135-143

Good guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma in PRESCHOOL children who are not able to perform pulmonary function testing.

Managing the paediatric patient with an acute asthma exacerbation

Canadian Paediatric Society Position Standard (2012) Outlines management of acute asthma exacerbation. *This is recommended as a MUST READ resource*

Bronchiolitis: Recommendations for diagnosis, monitoring and management or children one to 24 months of age.

Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (2014)

Clinical Practice Guideline: The Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 2014; 134(5): e1474–e1502.

American Academy of Pediatrics Practice Guideline.

Emergency treatment of anaphylaxis in infants and children.

Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (2011) Outlines clinical presentation and management of anaphylaxis. *This is recommended as a MUST READ resource*

Virtual Patients or Cases

Child with respiratory distress.

Video with good visual representation of severe respiratory distress.

Seal bark baby with respiratory distress.

Video with excellent audio of croup cough. Visual of lesser quality but demonstrates respiratory distress.

Clinical examples of pertussis.

Video demonstrates pertussis. Audio is good, video of lesser quality

Children’s Hospital Cleveland Clinic: Pediatric Radiology Image Gallery

Image gallery of pediatric radiology; can be navigated by body system or by topic. Images labeled by presentation. On reviewing image, you can select to have findings highlighted as well as diagnosis provided.

Clinical Presentations