Acutely Ill Child
Diabetic ketoacidosis / Diabetes mellitus
Poisoning / intoxication
- List toxic agents that can cause altered level of consciousness and describe their mechanisms of action
- Describe common toxidromes
- Explain the effect of hyperglycemia on fluid, electrolyte and acid-base status
- Describe the basic principles of pharmacology used in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis
- Describe the pathophysiology of glucose homeostasis and the consequences of hyperglycemia
- Describe how the physiology of the cardiopulmonary systems impacts the vital signs in different age groups
- Describe the anatomic differences between the pediatric and adult airway
- Recognize that a primary respiratory event can lead to cardiac arrest in the pediatric population
- Define shock and describe the pathophysiology of four broad categories of shock: hypovolemic, distributive, cardiogenic and neurogenic
- Recognize that body surface area and degree of burn injury impact fluid management in the pediatric population
- Recognize that acute illness may lead to multisystem organ dysfunction
Overview & Foundational Knowledge
|Brayer AF & Humiston SG. Invasive meningococcal disease in childhood. Pediatrics in Review, 2011; 32(4): 152-160.
Review of meningococcal disease. Clinical features, treatment guidelines and complications.
|The medical assessment of bruising in suspected child maltreatment cases: A clinical perspective.
Canadian Pediatric Society Practice Guideline (2013). Good tables, differential diagnoses.
|Avner JR. Altered States of Consciousness. Pediatrics in Review 2006; 27 (9): 331-338.
Approach to altered level of consciousness. Common causes, differential diagnosis, table on herniation syndromes and management.
|Yager P & Noviski N. Shock. Pediatrics in Review 2010; 31(8): 311-319.
Excellent overview, including pathophysiology of shock, types of shock and management.
|Pope J & McBride J. Consultation with the Specialist: Respiratory Failure in Children. Pediatrics in Review 2004; 25(5): 160-167.
Review article on pathophysiology of respiratory insufficiency, and covers both acute and chronic respiratory failure and management.
|Meningococcal vaccines in Canada: An update
Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (2017).
|Wolfsdorf et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes 2009; 10 (Suppl 12): 118-133.
International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2009 Compendium. Comprehensive article on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
|Pediatric Vital Signs. pedscases.com
Pedscases podcast on pediatric vital signs and link to pediatric vital signs reference chart.
|Krishnamoorthy et al. Pediatric burn injuries. International Journal of Critical Illness & Injury Science (2012); 2(3): 128-134.
Overview of pediatric burns, including classification of burn, systemic effects, and goals of management.
|Management of the paediatric patient with acute head trauma.
Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement (2016).